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First Aid for Drain Cleaner Poisoning

Drain Cleaner Poisoning is the accidental or intentional intake of any product containing the compound.

What is Drain Cleaner Poisoning?

  • Drain cleaners are synthetic chemicals that are used to help unblock or clean clogged drains or drainpipes. They are also known as drain openers
  • Drain Cleaner Poisoning is the accidental or intentional intake of any product containing the compound
  • The condition is diagnosed based upon the clinical history, combination of signs and symptoms, and additional tests (that may include, in some cases, radiological studies and laboratory tests)

Drain Cleaner Poisoning may be also referred to variously as the following:

  • Drain Cleaner Toxicity
  • Drain Cleaning Agents Poisoning
  • Drain Opener Poisoning
  • Drain Opener Toxicity
  • Drain Opening Agents Poisoning
  • Drainpipe Cleaner Poisoning
  • Drainpipe Cleaner Toxicity
  • Drainpipe Cleaning Agents Poisoning

What are the Causes of Drain Cleaner Poisoning?

  • Drain Cleaner Poisoning is caused by the ingestion of drain cleaning or opening agents. The chemical is strong and it can produce severe injury to the exposed regions
  • Exposure to the substance through direct contact may affect the skin and eyes. In powder form, the substance may also be inhaled, resulting in symptoms
  • This intake could be accidental, or in some cases intentional, to bring self-harm
  • Most drain cleaners (drain openers) are alkaline or acidic compounds that are available as solids or liquids. The toxic chemicals in these products may include strong acids (such as hydrochloric or sulfuric acids) and strong alkalis (such as sodium or potassium hydroxides)

Note: The compound can interact with other prescribed or non-prescribed medications in the body. Such interactions may enhance the therapeutic effects of other medications being taken, resulting in undesired side effects.

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Drain Cleaner Poisoning?

The signs and symptoms of Drain Cleaner Poisoning can vary from one individual to another. It may be mild in some and severe in others. Several systems of the body may be affected.

The signs and symptoms of Drain Cleaner Poisoning may include:

  • Breathing difficulties, if fumes of the solution or chemical powders are inhaled
  • Severe chest pain
  • Speaking and swallowing difficulties due to swelling of tongue and throat
  • Inflammation of the lung
  • Severe burning and associated pain in the mouth, throat, and food-pipe (even the stomach may be burnt); drooling from the mouth
  • Due to this, the eyes, nose, and ears may be affected
  • Severe damage along the gastrointestinal tract including the stomach; severe stomach pain
  • Severe skin irritation and burns (perforations on the skin may be observed)
  • Loss of vision
  • Severe stomach pain
  • Blood in stool and vomit
  • Diarrhea
  • Sudden decrease in blood pressure (hypotension)
  • Shock
  • Collapse
  • Severe changes in blood pH value affecting many parts of the body and organs

How is First Aid administered for Drain Cleaner Poisoning?

First Aid tips for Drain Cleaner or Drain Opener Poisoning:

  • Call 911 or your local emergency help number immediately, for emergency assistance
  • Call the Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222 (or your local poison control center) for further instructions
  • Provide them with information such as the compound taken, quantity and time of ingestion, age, weight and general health status of affected individual
  • Carefully remove the individual from the exposure area
  • Confirm that the airways are protected; also, ensure breathing and the presence of pulse
  • If skin exposure or involvement of the eye has occurred, then wash thoroughly with copious amounts of water (for at least 15 minutes)
  • Unless instructed by a healthcare professional, DO NOT induce vomiting in the affected individual
  • Following an ingestion of the substance, immediately give milk to drink
  • In case of symptoms that indicate difficulty in swallowing including vomiting or decreased alertness, do not give anything by way of mouth
  • Take individual to emergency room (ER) for further treatment
  • Always try to take the compound bottle/container to the ER

The emergency medical health professional might perform the following steps towards treating the condition:

  • Medically manage symptoms, such as abnormal heart rate and severe pain
  • Provide breathing support, if necessary
  • Wash skin and eyes repeatedly and thoroughly (irrigation), to eliminate any remaining hazardous compound
  • Following this, a suitable skin or eye ointment may be used to treat the exposure
  • Surgical treatment for skin burns including removal of burnt skin
  • Administer fluids by an intravenous drip line

Who should administer First Aid for Drain Cleaner Poisoning?

First aid for Drain Cleaner Poisoning is administered by healthcare professionals.

  • The individual who is affected, or someone near, should call 911 for emergency assistance (or the local emergency number)
  • They should also call the poison control center at 1-800-222-1222 (or the local poison control center) and follow instructions

What is the Prognosis of Drain Cleaner Poisoning?

  • The prognosis of Drain Cleaner Poisoning is dependent on the amount of substance consumed, time between consumption and treatment, severity of the symptoms, as well as general health status of the patient
  • The prognosis can only be assessed on a case-by-case basis is dependent upon the quantity and strength of the compound ingested. In case of severe symptoms including severe burns and organ damage, it may considerably worsen the outcome
  • Ingesting large quantities of strong acids or alkalis can result in long-term damage to the mouth, food-pipe, and stomach; the chemical has the potential to continue causing damage to the affected region, even after exposure is ceased. In some cases, fatalities have been reported
  • Skin burns may be severe and if the eye is affected, it can also result in total loss of vision

In general, toxicities are common situations in the emergency departments. A majority of the cases are often not fatal, when appropriate treatment is given.

How can Drain Cleaner Poisoning be Prevented?

Drain Cleaner Poisoning can be prevented by:

  • Always following instructions for usage of any household or domestic use products
  • Keeping any poisonous/hazardous chemicals and other materials out of children’s reach
  • Wearing appropriate protective clothing when working with or using such chemicals
  • Being aware of basic first aid steps in case of an emergency (such as inadvertent poisoning)

What are certain Crucial Steps to be followed?

  • Call 911 (or your local emergency number) for emergency assistance, if symptoms are life-threatening
  • Call Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222 (or the local poison control center) and follow the recommend steps
  • It would be helpful if the following information is readily available:
    • Type, amount and time of consumption of the substance
    • Age and weight of the individual
    • And, the overall health status of the individual

What are some Useful Resources for Additional Information?

National Capital Poison Center (USA)
3201 New Mexico Ave, Suite 310 Washington, DC 20016
Administrative Line: (202) 362-3867
Emergency Line: 1 (800) 222-1222
Fax: (202) 362-8377
Email: pc@poison.org
Website: http://www.poison.org

American Association of Poison Control Centers (USA)
515 King St., Suite 510, Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone: (703) 894-1858
Email: info@aapcc.org
Website: http://www.aapcc.org

National Poisons Centre (New Zealand)
Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago
PO Box 913 Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
Phone: 0800 POISON (0800 764 766)
Website: http://www.poisons.co.nz

NSW Poisons Information Centre (Australia)
Hawkesbury Rd & Hainsworth Street, Westmead NSW 2145, Australia
Phone: +61 13 11 26
Email: nswpoisons@chw.edu.au
Website: https://www.poisonsinfo.nsw.gov.au

British Columbia Drug and Poison Information Centre (Canada)
Room 0063, BC Centre for Disease Control
655 West 12th Avenue
Vancouver, BC V5Z 4R4 Canada
Phone: (604) 682-5050
Toll-Free: 1 (800) 567-8911
Fax: (604) 707-2807
Website: http://www.capcc.ca

Poisons Information Centre (South Africa)
Room 411, Institute of Child Health
Red Cross Children's Hospital
Klipfontein Road, Rondebosch, 7700, Cape Town South Africa
Phone: +27 21 658 5308
Fax: +27 21  650 4492
Email: poisonsinformation@uct.ac.za
Website: https://www.afritox.co.za

National Poisons Information Service (United Kingdom)
City Hospital Dudley Rd, Birmingham United Kingdom B187QH
Phone: +44 844 892 0111
Fax: +44 121 507 55 88
Email: mail@npis.org
Website: http://www.npis.org

References and Information Sources used for the Article:

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002779.htm (accessed on 07/20/2017)

http://keckmedicine.adam.com/content.aspx?productId=117&pid=1&gid=002779 (accessed on 07/20/2017)

http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/injuries-poisoning/poisoning/caustic-ingestion (accessed on 07/20/2017)

https://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm253338.htm (accessed on 07/20/2017)

Helpful Peer-Reviewed Medical Articles:

Mowry, J. B., Spyker, D. A., Cantilena Jr, L. R., Bailey, J. E., & Ford, M. (2013). 2012 annual report of the american association of poison control centers’ national poison data system (NPDS): 30th annual report. Clinical toxicology, 51(10), 949-1229.

Palao, R., Monge, I., Ruiz, M., & Barret, J. P. (2010). Chemical burns: pathophysiology and treatment. Burns, 36(3), 295-304.

Mowry, J. B., Spyker, D. A., Brooks, D. E., McMillan, N., & Schauben, J. L. (2015). 2014 annual report of the american association of poison control centers’ national poison data system (NPDS): 32nd annual report. Clinical toxicology, 53(10), 962-1147.

Bøgevig, S., Høgberg, L. C., Dalhoff, K. P., & Mortensen, O. S. (2011). Status and trends in poisonings in Denmark 2007-2009. Dan Med Bull, 58(5), 1-5.

Kaiser, S. (2010). U.S. Patent Application No. 12/960,752.

Kearns, R. D., Cairns, C. B., Holmes, J. H., Rich, P. B., & Cairns, B. A. (2014). Chemical burn care: a review of best practices. EMS world, 43(3), 40-5.

GALLON, M. G. C. C. L. (2012). Directions for use.

Gnaneswaran, N., Perera, E., Perera, M., & Sawhney, R. (2015). Cutaneous chemical burns: assessment and early management. Australian family physician, 44(3), 135.