The yellowbelly sea snake (Hydrophis platurus) is a highly venomous snake belonging to the family Elapidae, which generally includes slender and swift moving snakes.
What are the other Names for this Condition? (Also known as/Synonyms)
- Hydrophis Platurus Snake Bite
- Pelagic Sea Snake Bite
- Yellow and Black Sea Snake Bite
What is Yellowbelly Sea Snake Bite? (Definition/Background Information)
- The yellowbelly sea snake (Hydrophis platurus) is a highly venomous snake belonging to the family Elapidae, which generally includes slender and swift moving snakes. The snake, also known as the black and yellow sea snake, is found extensively along tropical shorelines worldwide
- Hydrophis platurus belongs to snakes of subfamily Hydrophiinae that comprise over 50 species of “truly aquatic” sea snakes. The Hydrophiinae are completely adapted to marine life and habitat having minimal terrestrial association and limited land movement
- Yellowbelly sea snakes are found along seashores, lagoons, river mouths, and coral reefs in the coastal nations and islands of Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. The coastal shallow zones are the primary habitats of this diurnal snake that feeds on eels and other fish. The snake is often found near floating sea debris including driftwood and seaweed
- An adult yellowbelly sea snake can grow to a maximum length of 3.5 feet (average size 2 feet). The snake is almost uniformly stocky along its length, with an elongated tapering head and neck and a flattened paddle-like tail, to help the snake swim
- The snake is easily identifiable by its evenly colored (mostly) black to very dark brown body with bright yellow or turmeric yellow sides and underbelly. The dark-colored top band tends to break towards the tail, ending as black and yellow irregular but organized spots and blotches on the tail
- Typically, it is the fishing and coastal-dwelling communities in the endemic regions, which come into accidental contact with this sea creature. Unlike many sea snakes, the yellowbelly sea snake is not non-aggressive, even though it avoids humans. The snake is known to reportedly bite under provocation
- Generally, the bites of sea snakes may go unnoticed; the bites are also quite painless or produce minimal pain. Nonetheless, the Yellowbelly Sea Snake Bite can cause life-threatening to fatal envenomation (venom injection), without prompt and adequate treatment
- The signs and symptoms of Yellowbelly Sea Snake Bite may be apparent within a few hours following a bite. The snake venom is a highly potent neurotoxic, which can cause systemic symptoms such as severe fatigue, muscle weakness, respiratory failure, and total paralysis
- Early administration of suitable antivenom (or antivenin) is the mainstay of treatment. Apart from this, symptomatic treatment is necessary, which may include pain medication, hydration, and respiratory support. The prognosis of Yellow-Bellied Sea Snake Bite with immediate and effective therapy is usually good
Who gets Yellowbelly Sea Snake Bite? (Age and Sex Distribution)
- Yellowbelly Sea Snake Bite may occur to any individual exposed to the snake, usually in the coastal areas or while at sea (when fishing or diving); although, bite incidents are rare
- Individuals of any age and gender are prone to sea snake bites in the endemic zones
The geographical distribution of yellowbelly sea snake is truly global; along the tropics and subtropics - from eastern coastline of the African continent across Indian Ocean (that includes South East Asian and East Asian countries), Australia, and spanning both the western and eastern Pacific Ocean coasts (including western coasts of south and north Americas).
- African nations of South Africa, Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Madagascar (and surrounding islands)
- Nations around Gulf of Aden and Persian Gulf that includes Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Iran
- All islands nations of the Indian Ocean including Maldives, Seychelles, Mauritius, etc.
- Indian subcontinent region including Pakistan, India (including Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands), Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka
- Southeast Asian nations of Thailand, Philippines, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Burma
- East Asian nations including parts of China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, North Korea, and Japan
- Northern and western parts of Australia bordering the states of Western Australia, Northern Territory, and Queensland
- Island nations across the Pacific Ocean including New Guinea, Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Micronesia, Polynesia, American Samoa, Cook Islands, Pitcairn Islands, Hawaii (US), and Galapagos Islands
- American continent shorelines that border Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, and Ecuador
What are the Risk factors for Yellowbelly Sea Snake Bite? (Predisposing Factors)
The risks for Yellow-Bellied Sea Snake Bite include the following factors:
- Living or residing in the coastal regions endemic to the snake; most bites take place on land, due to their awkward movement on land, when they are generally more aggressive and easily agitated
- Occupational hazard: Fishermen and fisherwomen, while sorting fish, setting out fishing nets, pulling in the ‘catch’
- Swimmers, surfers, coral reef divers, and beachgoers; the snake may be found near rocky shores, small islands/islets, lagoons, and coral reef or sandy beaches
- Handling floating or beached marine debris; social workers and volunteers participating in beach cleaning activities
- Marine life enthusiasts and scientific study groups, who explore the region
- Wading in ocean waters without suitable protective clothing
- Walking barefoot on the beach or in shallow sea waters
- Keeping them as pets in aquariums (exotic collection)
- Handling dead or live snakes; intentionally or accidentally picking up the snake
It is important to note that having a risk factor does not mean that one will get the condition. A risk factor increases one’s chances of getting a condition compared to an individual without the risk factors. Some risk factors are more important than others.
Also, not having a risk factor does not mean that an individual will not get the condition. It is always important to discuss the effect of risk factors with your healthcare provider.
What are the Causes of Yellowbelly Sea Snake Bite? (Etiology)
Yellowbelly Sea Snake Bite can take place when one comes into contact with the venomous sea snake, usually unintentionally or inadvertently.
- The sea snake is aggressive and may bite easily when threatened; individuals, who come into contact with the snake, may be bitten under self defense when the snake is provoked
- The yellowbelly sea snake venom contains strong neurotoxins that can cause paralysis and death. Even though envenomation is rare, the fast-acting venom can cause rapid muscle breakdown and neurological symptoms within a few hours
According to scientific literature, sea snake venom is often many times more potent than land snake venom.
What are the Signs and Symptoms of Yellowbelly Sea Snake Bite?
The signs and symptoms of snake bites depend on the age (whether child or adult), body weight, and overall health status of the individual (whether having an underlying condition or illness). Also, the signs and symptoms vary according to the potency and amount of venom injected.
The signs and symptoms of Yellowbelly Sea Snake Bite can vary from one individual to another. It may develop in less than an hour. In general, the signs and symptoms of sea snake bites that are noted with snakes belonging to the subfamily Hydrophiinae include the following:
Initial symptoms observed within 5 minutes to 2 hours may include:
- Bite or fang marks on arm or leg; in some cases, the teeth may break-off and remain in the wound
- There may be no pain to negligible pain and swelling at the bite site
- Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
- Sensation of thick tongue
- Dryness of throat
- Feeling sweaty and/or thirsty
- Anxiety, drowsiness, and confusion
- Pain, fatigue, and weak muscles
- Body aches and muscle aches; stiffness of the body and neck
Symptoms observed after several hours (4-8 hours or more) may include:
- Abdominal pain
- Poor reflexes
- Locally enlarged lymph nodes
- Drooling from the mouth; uncontrollable saliva flow from the mouth
- Trismus or difficulty opening mouth (same as lockjaw)
- Droopy eyelids and blurred vision
- Breathing difficulties; labored breathing
- Blabbering, speaking difficulties
- Feeling faint or dizzy
- Dark-colored urine
- Blue-colored skin due to poisoning
- Weakness and malaise
It has to be noted that in severe bites, the onset and development of symptoms may be rapid, within 1-2 hours. In such cases, the progress from early symptoms to paralysis, respiratory failure, and/or cardiac arrest may take place suddenly.
Systemic signs and symptoms may include:
- Generalized muscle damage; progressive muscle weakness
- Rhabdomyolysis: The skeletal muscle tissue may breakdown quickly
- Paralysis of voluntary muscles; the affected individuals may be unable to stand, sit, or even raise their arms/legs or neck
- Difficulty speaking and swallowing
- Neurological symptoms including moderate to severe paralysis
- Kidney injury causing acute kidney failure is reported
- Multiple organs may be involved/affected
- In some cases, the fang marks may not be pronounced or even visible. Sometimes, only small scratch marks or lacerations may be observed. Thus, any contact with a sea snake merits immediate medical attention
- Severe anxiety may also result in some misleading symptoms of snakebites, such as sweating, fatigue, and shock, even when no bite has taken place (the individual may be imagining), or when it is a dry bite. Nevertheless, even in suspect cases, the presence of any such symptoms requires the attention of a qualified medical professional
- Also, if the individual has been treated using alternative/native medicines, it may present additional confusing symptoms. Thus, it is important to always consult a qualified healthcare provider promptly
How is Yellowbelly Sea Snake Bite Diagnosed?
Yellowbelly Sea Snake Bite may be diagnosed using the following tests and exams:
- Complete physical examination with comprehensive evaluation of medical history; a physical examination of the affected site by the physician may be normally sufficient to diagnose a snake bite
- The individual may be asked to provide an account (history) of the events that occurred (what took place and how), if possible
- Assessment of the signs and symptoms exhibited by the individual may be carefully observed
- Blood tests that may include:
- Complete blood count (CBC) with differential and platelet count
- White blood cell count
- Creatine kinase blood test
- Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) test
- Serum electrolytes including blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels
- Aspartate transaminase blood test
- Urine test or urinalysis to test for free protein, myoglobin, and hemoglobin levels
- Electrocardiogram or ECG, to check for arrhythmias (or irregular heartbeat) and hyperkalemia (increased blood potassium)
- Kidney function test and liver function test, if necessary
- Nerve conduction studies and neurological evaluation
Many clinical conditions may have similar signs and symptoms. Your healthcare provider may perform additional tests to rule out other clinical conditions to arrive at a definitive diagnosis.
What are the possible Complications of Yellowbelly Sea Snake Bite?
The complications of Yellowbelly Sea Snake Bite may include:
- Breakdown of muscle tissue in the body or systemic myolysis
- Tissue and muscle damage, which can result in superimposed infections
- Flaccid paralysis that is severe; the onset of paralysis may occur within a few hours following the sea snake bite
- Loss of respiratory function due to neurological symptoms, which can be fatal
- Hyperkalemic cardiotoxicity due to muscle breakdown
- Acute kidney failure
- Cardiac failure
Presence of misleading symptoms due to fear and anxiety, which may be also aggravated by those around the individual, such as one’s family members, can sometimes result in inappropriate or over-treatment.
- Some individuals may develop an allergic reaction, such as anaphylaxis, to the antivenom that may be serious. This may develop within 10 minutes or even after 6 hours, typically starting with itchiness over the scalp and other skin areas
- Life-threatening anaphylactic reactions that require immediate medical treatment may include:
- Low blood pressure or hypotension
- Bronchospasm causing narrowing of the airways (bronchi) resulting in breathing difficulties
- Angioedema: Swelling of skin tissue layers at various locations including the throat, causing speaking and breathing difficulties
- Serum sickness may develop as a complication of antivenom therapy causing fever, nausea, itchy skin, muscle and joint pain, etc. It may develop after 4 days or even 2 weeks (average 7 days) following the administration of antivenom serum
How is Yellowbelly Sea Snake Bite Treated?
All sea snake bites should be considered as medical emergencies and evaluated by trained medical professionals, as soon as possible; the first 6-8 hours are particularly vital for preventing life-threatening symptoms. Failure to obtain early assessment and management from the highest level of care (available within the community) may potentially result in severe complications and death.
The following measures may be considered in the treatment of Yellowbelly Sea Snake Bite, based on the medical evaluation of a trained healthcare professional. The snake bite can cause severe envenomation and hospitalization is generally necessary. In many cases, urgent first aid care and support, in the form of compression bandages, limb immobilization, and monitoring of vital signs is necessary and highly-recommended before the patient is hospitalized.
- Administration of sea snake antivenom (usually polyvalent type), to neutralize the venom through slow intravenous injection or infusion method
- Address any signs or early allergic reaction: A close observation of the patient is necessary for a minimum of 60 minutes immediately following antivenom administration, to detect early allergic reactions, if any
- Administration of intravenous fluids to keep the patient well-hydrated:
- Good hydration is important, since potential myolysis (muscle breakdown) can cause severe failure of kidney function
- Adequate hydration helps in decreasing the risk for kidney damage due to myolysis; hence, continuous measurement of urine output (day and night) is important
- Periodic blood and urine tests are undertaken for 12-24 hours or more
- Intubation and respiratory support is usually necessary
- Tetanus vaccination is usually required, if it is not up to date
- The patient is admitted and placed in an ICU setting and monitored for at least a day following the abatement of symptoms; the patient has to be rested and kept warm
- Administration of pain medication, if needed
- If necessary, blood and plasma transfusions for severe cases
- Medications to control blood pressure
- Peritoneal dialysis for acute kidney failure, if required
- Providing life support, such as ventilation assistance and treatment for shock, for those with severe symptoms leading to potential organ failure
- Rehabilitation of the affected limb through physical therapy, if required
- Unless infection or tissue necrosis is observed, the administration of prophylactic antibiotics is generally not recommended in snake bites. However, the healthcare provider will determine whether antibiotics administration is necessary or not, based on one’s individual circumstances
- Consultation with a medical toxicologist is recommended for all cases requiring the administration of anti-snake venom
- Even though antivenom therapy is the key treatment for systemic envenomation; on its own, it may never be adequate enough to completely resolve the condition. Other supportive and symptomatic measures are always necessary to save the patient
- The dose of antivenom does not vary for a child, adult, or even for a pregnant woman, since the snake typically injects the same quantity of venom into an individual
- Gynecological evaluation may be necessary for pregnant women bitten by sea snakes to evaluate the health of the fetus
- In many instances, the type of venomous snake involved in the bite is unknown; hence, all vital organs and systems should be closely monitored and treated appropriately, as necessary
How can Yellowbelly Sea Snake Bite be Prevented?
Yellowbelly Sea Snake Bite may be avoided by:
- Completely avoid any sort of water or sea snake, especially in the endemic zones
- Educating fishing and trawling community about sea snakes and the techniques for handling them, untangling them from fishing nets, etc.
- Do not ignore warnings of lifeguards or health officials at the beach
- Wear protective clothing if you plan to swim or dive in infested areas (suitable wet skin or diver’s suit)
- Generally be aware or watchful of the waters you are in (to the extent possible)
- Wear protective footwear while walking on beach sand
- Ensure safety precautions while cleaning marine animal aquariums; wear gloves
- Marine life explorers and sea adventurers are required to carry marine first aid kit
- If you spot a sea snake (on land or in shallow waters), step back slowly and keep a safe distance between yourself and the snake
- Do not explore floating debris at sea or those washed ashore, without sufficient precaution and protection; such marine debris (slicks) are known to harbor yellowbelly sea snakes
- People/volunteers, who participate in beach cleaning activities and sorting and disposal of marine flotsam, have to be adequately trained and take sufficient precautions in case of inadvertent contact with (dangerous) marine life
- Be on the lookout for snakes and other animals while outdoors (especially while exploring small islands and rocky beaches); also, if you are with a pet, do not allow the pet to wander away
- Be alert, if you are in snake-infested regions, particularly containing dangerous species of snakes
- Avoid picking up sticks, stones, or rocks without checking the area for any concealed creatures
- Near coastal areas, always check before sitting on dead tree logs, stumps, or a pile of rocks; use a stick to stir or probe around the area
- Avoiding being on beaches at night; be careful while camping outdoors by seaside
- Avoid playing with or teasing snakes such as by touching their tails
- Do not pick up dead snakes - they may be poisonous and still bite through a reflex action. Also, some snakes pretend to be motionless or may ‘act dead’ when under threat
- Do not reach into dark nooks/corners/recesses with your bare hands/foot
- Take steps to educate the members of a community to identify venomous snakes, recognize bite symptoms, and how to avoid encounter with snakes
Both large and small snakes have the potential for severe envenomation; hence, all snake bites should be treated promptly and appropriately.
Also, in case of a snake bite, do visit a registered medical practitioner immediately (and not any native or traditional medicine experts).
What is the Prognosis of Yellowbelly Sea Snake Bite? (Outcomes/Resolutions)
- The prognosis of Yellowbelly Sea Snake Bite is dependent on the site of bite, age and overall health of the individual, and promptness of medical response. However, the overall prognosis is primarily based on the quickness with which suitable antivenom is administered
- Without treatment or access to proper healthcare, deaths from severe complications, such as respiratory distress, severe paralysis, and organ failure, are known to take place
Additional and Relevant Useful Information for Yellowbelly Sea Snake Bite:
- The yellowbelly sea snake has a peculiar method of shedding its skin, including removing algae, barnacles, and other materials deposited on its body, by a process known as self-knotting. The snake forms a knot in its body, which it then slides to the end of its tail through coiling, thereby removing its skin and other foreign material
- A newly-discovered sub-species of Hydrophis platurus, called Hydrophis platurus xanthos, is reported from the waters off Costa Rica. This new species is predominantly yellow-bodied and of a much shorter length than the yellow-bellied sea snake
- In some cases, the snake bite may be a ‘dry bite’, meaning that even though there is a bite mark, no venom injection occurs. However, even for dry bites, the patient must be placed under observation and monitored closely for a period ranging anywhere from 12-24 hours, prior to discharge
Depending on the geographical region, either monovalent antivenom or polyvalent antivenom may be administered for systemic envenomation. Monovalent antivenom neutralizes venom of a single snake species only, whereas polyvalent antivenom can neutralize the venom of several snake species.
The snake venom is a highly complex mix of several proteins, enzymes, amino acids, peptide chains, fats, and even certain metals. The bite causing venom injection into the body may be categorized as:
- Intramuscular injection: Long-fanged snakes have a potential for injecting venom directly into the muscles (this is highly infrequent though)
- Intraperitoneal injection: When the snake bite involves the stomach or abdomen region
- Intravenous injection: In very rare cases, the snake fangs may inject venom directly into a blood vessel, releasing venom directly into blood (posing an even greater danger than normal snake bites)
- Subcutaneous injection: A majority of snake bites involve the subcutaneous skin layers (venom is injected just below the skin surface)
What are some Useful Resources for Additional Information?
World Health Organization (WHO)
Avenue Appia 20 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
Phone: + 41 22 791 21 11
Fax: + 41 22 791 31 11
National Capital Poison Center (USA)
3201 New Mexico Ave, Suite 310 Washington, DC 20016
Administrative Line: (202) 362-3867
Emergency Line: 1 (800) 222-1222
Fax: (202) 362-8377
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)
40 Rector Street, 16th Floor, New York, NY 10006 USA
Phone: 00 1 212 679 6800
Fax: 00 1 212 679 7016
Advocates for Snake Preservation
PO Box 2752
Silver City, New Mexico 88062
Phone: (520) 333-6957
Minutes To Die
References and Information Sources used for the Article:
http://snakedatabase.org/pages/ld50.php (accessed on 03/08/2019)
http://snakedatabase.org/species/Hydrophis/platurus (accessed on 03/08/2019)
https://www.who.int/snakebites/en/ (accessed on 03/08/2019)
https://www.who.int/snakebites/resources/9789290225300/en/ (accessed on 03/08/2019)
https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/snakebite-envenoming (accessed on 03/08/2019)
http://www.toxinology.com/fusebox.cfm?fuseaction=main.snakes.display&id=SN0587 (accessed on 03/08/2019)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/35164-Hydrophis-platurus (accessed on 03/08/2019)
http://www.californiaherps.com/snakes/pages/h.platurus.html (accessed on 03/08/2019)
http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=hydrophis&species=platurus (accessed on 03/08/2019)
https://zookeys.pensoft.net/article/12682/element/7/hydrophis-platurus/ (accessed on 03/08/2019)
https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/176738/115883818 (accessed on 03/08/2019)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellow-bellied_sea_snake (accessed on 03/08/2019)
http://www.aircav.com/survival/appe/asappe24.html (accessed on 03/08/2019)
Helpful Peer-Reviewed Medical Articles:
Warrell, D. A. (2010). Guidelines for the management of snake-bites. Guidelines for the management of snake-bites.
DABHI, J., PORIYA, P., & GADHVI, I. (2019). 2. DIVERSITY OF SEA SNAKES ALONG THE SAURASHTRA COAST, GUJARAT, INDIA by JC DABHI, PARESH PORIYA AND IR GADHVI. LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS, 108, 08-TO.
CURRE, O. (2013). DISTRIBUTION OF MARINE REPTILES ON TH.
Calmette, A. (2018). Venoms. BoD–Books on Demand.
King, D. (2014). The Reef Guide: fishes, corals, nudibranchs & other vertebrates East & South Coasts of Southern Africa. Penguin Random House South Africa.
Michael, D., & Lindenmayer, D. (2010). Reptiles of the NSW Murray catchment: a guide to their identification, ecology and conservation. CSIRO PUBLISHING.
Bessesen, B. L., & Galbreath, G. J. (2017). A new subspecies of sea snake, Hydrophis platurus xanthos, from Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica. ZooKeys, (686), 109.
Jonnalagadda, N., Tomar, M. P. S., Putluru, S., Palanisamy, D., Akula, S., & Tanguturi, V. P. (2018). Heart of Yellow Bellied Sea Snake (Hydrophis platurus): A Gross Morphological Study. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci, 7(3), 3192-3196.
Buzás, B., Farkas, B., Gulyás, E., & Géczy, C. (2018). The sea snakes (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae) of Fujairah. Tribulus, 26.
Mirtschin, P., Rasmussen, A., & Weinstein, S. (2017). Australia's Dangerous Snakes: Identification, Biology and Envenoming. CSIRO PUBLISHING.