What are the other Names for this Condition? (Also known as/Synonyms)
- Ossifying Fibromyxoid Neoplasm
- Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor (Malignant)
- Ossifying Fibromyxoma
What is Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor? (Definition/Background Information)
- Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor (OFMT) of soft parts is an infrequent tumor with low-to-intermediate grade metastatic ability. Middle-aged individuals are most prone to this tumor type
- OFMT is usually painless and occurs as tiny multiple nodules, attached to adjoining muscles and tendons. The most common location for these tumors are the arms and legs; followed by the head and neck, torso region
- Any combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery may be used to treat the tumor; though, a complete surgical removal is the preferred choice. The prognosis for Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor is generally good with appropriate treatment
Who gets Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor? (Age and Sex Distribution)
- Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumors are mostly observed during the mid-adult phase (average age 50 years). However, it is present in a much wider age group, occurring in children and older adults too
- There is a slight predisposition towards the male sex
- There is no known ethnic or racial preference
What are the Risk Factors for Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor? (Predisposing Factors)
Risk factors for Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor are currently unknown, or are as yet unidentified.
It is important to note that having a risk factor does not mean that one will get the condition. A risk factor increases ones chances of getting a condition compared to an individual without the risk factors. Some risk factors are more important than others.
Also, not having a risk factor does not mean that an individual will not get the condition. It is always important to discuss the effect of risk factors with your healthcare provider.
What are the Causes of Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor? (Etiology)
- The exact cause for Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor and mechanism formation is unknown. They are thought to occur spontaneously.
- It is considered that the origin of the tumor may be related to defective embryonic germ cell (ectoderm) formation, particularly those that are linked to neurological development
What are the Signs and Symptoms of Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor?
The signs and symptoms of Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor include:
- The presentations are based on the location of OFMT. Most of the tumors are small and asymptomatic, with no indication of pain
- The well-defined, benign nodules (usually with multiple cysts), grow at a slow rate, sometimes over decades
- They may be located as superficial tumors (just below the skin) or deep-seated ones (inside the body tissues); deep-seated tumors are rare
- OFMT usually occurs in the upper and lower limbs in 70% of the cases
- The head, neck, trunk, mouth, abdominal cavity, and chest wall, are other regions, where tumors have been noticed, from time to time
How is Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor Diagnosed?
Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor diagnosis may involve:
- A thorough physical examination and a complete evaluation of the individual’s medical history
- Tissue biopsy of tumor: Histopathological studies conducted on a biopsy specimen - the specimen is examined under a microscope by a pathologist, to arrive at a definitive diagnosis
- X-ray studies of the tumor
- CT scan of affected region
- MRI scan of the affected region; sometimes depletion of underlying bone is observed
- Differential diagnosis, to eliminate other tumor types should be considered, before arriving at a definitive diagnosis
Many clinical conditions may have similar signs and symptoms. Your healthcare provider may perform additional tests to rule out other clinical conditions to arrive at a definitive diagnosis.
What are the possible Complications of Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor?
The possible complications of Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor may include:
- Deep-seated tumors may create problems for adjoining tissues and organs. The tumors may cause bone erosion and subsequent ossification
- Damage of vital nerves, blood vessels, and surrounding structures, during surgery
- Recurrence of the tumor after surgery
- There is also a risk of metastasis (about 6% chance), which can led to fatalities
How is Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor Treated?
Following are the treatment methods for Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor:
- Surgical excision of Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor with its entire removal is to be performed. If it is not fully removed, then it might recur
- Chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be used, when surgical intervention is not feasible
- If there is any pain, it is controlled through pain medications
- Post-operative care is important: A minimum activity level is to be ensured until the surgical wound heals
- Follow-up care with regular screening and check-ups are important
How can Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor be Prevented?
- Current medical research have not established a way of preventing Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor
- Regular medical screening at periodic intervals with blood tests, radiological scans, and physical examinations, are mandatory for those who have been diagnosed with the tumor
- Due to chances of its recurrence and metastasis, often several years of active follow-up vigilance is necessary
What is the Prognosis of Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor? (Outcomes/Resolutions)
- The prognosis is excellent, when lesions are well-defined and located just below the skin surface and are completely removed by surgical procedures. This also reduces their recurrence risk
- The probability of Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor recurrence is moderate-to-high at 20-25%, after surgical removal of the tumor. Besides, since it possess a low-to-intermediate grade metastatic potential and has led to mortalities, regular follow-up screening is certainly recommended
Additional and Relevant Useful Information for Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor:
- Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor soft tissue tumor is primarily composed of spindle or oval-shaped cells and primitive connective tissues, with peripheral calcification (bone-like formation)
- An Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumor characterized by a high level of cell activity, highly active cell multiplication process, with a high nuclear grade (refers to the tumor cell ‘nucleus’ morphological feature), indicates a strong metastatic potential