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Circumvallate Placenta

Last updated Aug. 14, 2018

Circumvallate Placenta is a variation in the normal shape of the placenta in which the chorionic plate on the fetal side is too small.


What are the other Names for this Condition? (Also known as/Synonyms)

  • Placenta Extrachorialis (Placenta  Circumvallata)

What is Circumvallate Placenta? (Definition/Background Information)

  • Circumvallate Placenta is a variation in the normal shape of the placenta in which the chorionic plate on the fetal side is too small. In this condition, the fetal membranes ‘double back’ on the fetal side around the edge of the placenta. The condition results in a decreased supply of nutrients to the fetus
  • The exact cause of Circumvallate Placenta is currently not known. There is also no specific treatment of Circumvallate Placenta. The treatment is aimed at managing the complications of the condition
  • The complications associated with Circumvallate Placenta include miscarriage, pre-term birth, placental abruption, growth restriction of the fetus within the uterus, and oligohydramnios
  • The prognosis of Circumvallate Placenta is variable and depends upon the early and efficient management of complications associated with it

The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall.

  • It is a disc shaped reddish brown structure that connects the fetus to the mother through the umbilical cord
  • The umbilical cord contains two umbilical arteries and one umbilical vein, providing a connection between maternal and fetal blood circulation
  • The normal function of placenta is to supply nutrients and oxygen to the fetus from the mother’s blood and remove wastes from the fetal body
  • The chorion and amnion are placental membranes. The chorion is the membrane that is present between the growing fetus and the mother. The amnion closely covers and protects the developing embryo

Who gets Circumvallate Placenta? (Age and Sex Distribution)

  • Circumvallate Placenta can occur in pregnant women of all ages
  • It is estimated to occur in 1% of all pregnancies
  • There is no racial, ethnic, or geographical predilection

What are the Risk Factors for Circumvallate Placenta? (Predisposing Factors)

  • There are no specific risk factors associated with Circumvallate Placenta

It is important to note that having a risk factor does not mean that one will get the condition. A risk factor increases ones chances of getting a condition compared to an individual without the risk factors. Some risk factors are more important than others.
Also, not having a risk factor does not mean that an individual will not get the condition. It is always important to discuss the effect of risk factors with your healthcare provider.

What are the Causes of Circumvallate Placenta? (Etiology)

The exact cause of Circumvallate Placenta is unknown.

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Circumvallate Placenta?

There are no specific signs and symptoms associated with Circumvallate Placenta, but the condition may cause a reduced supply of blood and nutrients to the growing baby.

How is Circumvallate Placenta Diagnosed?

The diagnosis of Circumvallate Placenta may include:

  • Fetal ultrasound
  • Gross examination of the placenta after the delivery of the baby and placenta

Many clinical conditions may have similar signs and symptoms. Your healthcare provider may perform additional tests to rule out other clinical conditions to arrive at a definitive diagnosis.

What are the possible Complications of Circumvallate Placenta?

Complications associated with Circumvallate Placenta include:

  • Placental abruption: Premature separation of the placenta, causing significant third trimester bleeding
  • Intrauterine growth restriction of the fetus
  • Miscarriage
  • Pre-term birth
  • Oligohydramnios: Decreased amount of amniotic fluid that helps to cushion the fetus

How is Circumvallate Placenta Treated?

  • There is no specific treatment of Circumvallate Placenta
  • The treatment is aimed at managing the complications associated with the condition

How can Circumvallate Placenta be Prevented?

  • Currently, there are no definitive methods available to prevent Circumvallate Placenta
  • Expectant mothers diagnosed with Circumvallate Placenta require regular prenatal care to monitor complications associated with the condition

What is the Prognosis of Circumvallate Placenta? (Outcomes/Resolutions)

  • Circumvallate Placenta is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy-related complications and may result in fetal loss, if appropriate medical care is not given immediately
  • The prognosis of Circumvallate Placenta is variable and depends upon the early and efficient management of complications (if any)

Additional and Relevant Useful Information for Circumvallate Placenta:

The following DoveMed website link is a useful resource for additional information:

https://www.dovemed.com/diseases-conditions/pregnancy-related-disorders/

What are some Useful Resources for Additional Information?


References and Information Sources used for the Article:


Helpful Peer-Reviewed Medical Articles:


Reviewed and Approved by a member of the DoveMed Editorial Board
First uploaded: Aug. 20, 2015
Last updated: Aug. 14, 2018

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