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Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus

Last updated April 25, 2018

Approved by: Maulik P. Purohit MD MPH

Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus is a benign tumor that involves the smooth muscles of the endometrium (inner uterus layer composed of epithelial cells) and the endometrial glands.


What are the other Names for this Condition? (Also known as/Synonyms)

  • Adenomyoma of Corpus Uteri
  • Adenomyoma of Uterus
  • Uterine Adenomyoma

What is Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus? (Definition/Background Information)

  • Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus is a benign tumor that involves the smooth muscles of the endometrium (inner uterus layer composed of epithelial cells) and the endometrial glands
  • The tumor is mostly found in women less than 50 years old, who frequently have problems related to menstruation. Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus is classified as a mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumor of the uterine corpus
  • The tumors are generally painless and asymptomatic in some cases. Some women may have heavy bleeding during menstruation and irregular periods. Large tumors sizes can cause signs and symptoms due to compression of adjoining organ structures
  • The treatment of choice for Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus is a surgical removal of the entire tumor. In most cases, the prognosis is excellent with appropriate treatment

Who gets Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus? (Age and Sex Distribution)

  • Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus may affect females of a wide age range, but is mostly observed in women younger than 48-50 years (premenopausal status)
  • There is no geographical, racial, or ethnic preference noticed

What are the Risk Factors for Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus? (Predisposing Factors)

  • No specific risk factors are noted for Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus
  • However, the tumor typically develops in premenopausal women who have irregular periods, menstruation-related problems, and abnormal bleeding

The following factors may also favor the formation of Uterine Adenomyoma:

  • Family history of the condition
  • Imbalance of estrogen and progesterone hormone levels in the body
  • Early onset of menstruation (in girls)
  • Obesity, being overweight
  • High in meat and low in vegetables diet
  • Vitamin D deficiency
  • Excessive alcohol consumption

It is important to note that having a risk factor does not mean that one will get the condition. A risk factor increases ones chances of getting a condition compared to an individual without the risk factors. Some risk factors are more important than others.

Also, not having a risk factor does not mean that an individual will not get the condition. It is always important to discuss the effect of risk factors with your healthcare provider.

What are the Causes of Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus? (Etiology)

  • The exact cause of Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus development is unknown
  • Research is being performed to understand the causative factors of this benign condition

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus?

The signs and symptoms of Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus may include the following:

  • The tumor arises in the body of the uterus (or uterine corpus); occasionally, they may be observed in the cervix (which is the lower neck-like portion of the uterus)
  • The tumor involves the endometrial glands and are generally painless
  • Adenomyomas are well-defined, firm tumors that appear like polyps or appear as a mass, mostly on the walls of the uterus
  • Women may experience irregular periods and related problems; abnormal vaginal bleeding may also be observed during menstruation
  • Large tumors may compress adjoining organs and structures; it may cause a feeling of fullness in the abdomen
  • Enlargement of lower abdomen
  • Frequent urination due to compression/pressure of the tumor
  • Lower back pain
  • The tumors may be classified according to the location, and may be:
    • Intramural tumors, found within the uterine walls
    • Submucosal tumors, found in the thin tissues beneath the mucosal layers
    • Subserosal tumors, found in the connective tissues (beneath the serosal layers)
  • Some women may not experience any symptoms

How is Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus Diagnosed?

The diagnosis of Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus may involve the following tests and procedures:

  • Complete physical examination with thorough evaluation of medical history
  • Ultrasound scan of the pelvis: It is a noninvasive procedure that uses high frequency sound waves to produce real-time images
  • Abdominal and pelvic CT scan: It is a noninvasive procedure that provides more details of soft tissues, blood vessels, and internal organs
  • Pelvic MRI scan: It is a noninvasive medical test that uses a powerful magnetic field to produce images of soft tissues, bones, organs, and all other internal structures of the abdomen and pelvis
  • Blood tests that include:
    • Complete blood count (CBC) to detect the cause of anemia
    • Determination of estrogen/progesterone levels in blood
  • Hysteroscopy: This procedure involves placing a probe through the cervix to examine the cavity of the uterus. This exam is helpful in detecting submucosal tumors
  • Hysterosalpingography: It is usually performed in individuals with infertility. In this procedure, the structure of the uterus and fallopian tubes are studied by using a dye and X-ray images
  • Needle biopsy of tumor: A needle biopsy may not be helpful, because one may not be able to visualize the different morphological areas of the tumor. Hence, a needle biopsy as a diagnostic tool has certain limitations, and an open surgical biopsy is preferred
  • Open biopsy of tumor: A tissue biopsy is performed and sent to a laboratory for a pathological examination, who examines the biopsy under a microscope. After putting together clinical findings, special studies on tissues (if needed) and with microscope findings, the pathologist arrives at a definitive diagnosis
  • Differential diagnosis, to eliminate other tumor types is considered, before arriving at a definitive diagnosis

Many clinical conditions may have similar signs and symptoms. Your healthcare provider may perform additional tests to rule out other clinical conditions to arrive at a definitive diagnosis.

What are the possible Complications of Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus?

The possible complications of Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus include:

  • Stress and anxiety due to fear of cancer of the uterus
  • Polypoid tumors may undergo mechanical injury, such as torsion or twisting, which can result in excruciating pain
  • The polyps may cause cervical prolapse
  • Some tumors may grow to large sizes, and even grow out of the uterus affecting adjoining reproductive organs
  • Recurrence of the tumor due to its partial or incomplete surgical removal
  • There may be complications due to the tumor in pregnant women

How is Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus Treated?

The treatment of Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus may depend upon a consideration of the following set of factors:

  • Size of the tumor
  • Severity of the signs and symptoms
  • Location of the adenomyoma
  • Age of the individual
  • Whether the women is pregnant or not,
  • And the women’s desire to have children in future

The following treatment methods may be employed:

  • Asymptomatic tumors may not require any treatment; in such cases, the healthcare provider may chose to periodically observe and monitor the tumor, once the tumor is diagnosed
  • Medical treatment options:
    • Pain medications
    • Dietary and lifestyle modification to address overweight issues
  • Surgical treatment options: A simple surgical excision and removal of the entire tumor is normally sufficient treatment
    • Myomectomy: Removal of the tumor
    • Hysterectomy: The removal of a part of the uterus or the entire uterus for large-sized tumors
    • Myolysis: In this procedure, a needle is inserted into the tumor. After the insertion, the tumor is destroyed either by using an electric current, or by a freezing technique
    • Tumor embolization is a possible treatment option. Here the blood supply to the tumor is blocked resulting in its death
    • Radiofrequency ablation: In this technique, the tumors are destroyed using radio waves
  • Post-operative care is important: One must maintain minimum activity levels, until the surgical wound heals
  • Follow-up care with regular screening and check-ups are important

How can Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus be Prevented?

Current medical research has not established a way of preventing Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus. However, the following factors may be considered to reduce the risk for Uterine Adenomyomas:

  • Address any condition causing hormonal imbalance in the body
  • Maintain weight through proper diet modification and physical exercises, if you are overweight/obese
  • Avoid alcohol consumption or limit its intake
  • Have a balanced diet that is not high in meat and low in vegetables; a balanced diet can also help avoid any mineral or vitamin deficiencies in the body
  • Regular prenatal checkups are necessary to monitor the health of the expectant mother and baby in the womb
  • Regular medical screening at periodic intervals with blood tests, radiological scans, and physical examinations are recommended

What is the Prognosis of Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus? (Outcomes/Resolutions)

  • In a majority, the prognosis of Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus is generally excellent on surgical excision and removal of the tumor
  • However, the prognosis may also depend upon the severity of the signs and symptoms and other factors

Additional and Relevant Useful Information for Adenomyoma of Uterine Corpus:

  • Fibroid tumor removal (or myomectomy) is the surgical removal of fibroids from the uterus

The following link will help you understand fibroid tumor removal surgical procedure:

http://www.dovemed.com/common-procedures/procedures-surgical/fibroid-tumor-removal/

  • Uterine fibroid embolization is a minimally-invasive procedure to treat fibroid tumors found in the uterus

The following link will help you understand uterine fibroid embolization radiology procedure:

http://www.dovemed.com/common-procedures/radiology-procedures/uterine-fibroid-embolization/

What are some Useful Resources for Additional Information?


References and Information Sources used for the Article:


Helpful Peer-Reviewed Medical Articles:


Reviewed and Approved by a member of the DoveMed Editorial Board
First uploaded: Nov. 13, 2016
Last updated: April 25, 2018