Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton was diagnosed with pneumonia on Friday, her doctor says. The news was revealed when Clinton experienced a medical episode as she stumbled and exited a 9/11 commemoration ceremony on Sunday. Her doctor stated that the episode was a result of heat exhaustion and dehydration.
"While at this morning's event, she became overheated and dehydrated. I have just examined her, and she is now re-hydrated and recovering nicely," said Bardack, chairperson of internal medicine at the Mount Kisco Medical Group, after attending to Clinton at her Chappaqua home.
According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), pneumonia combined with the flu ranks as the 8th leading cause of death in the U.S. every year. Children and people over 65 are considered high-risk cases because their bodies are more susceptible to infection. Though the exact type of pneumonia has not been stated, pneumonia falls into three categories: bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
Bacterial Pneumonia can be contracted from two ways. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) occurs when you get an infection after exposure to bacterial agents outside of a healthcare setting. Some bacteria can cause CAP including the following:
- Streptococcus pneumonia
- Haemophilus influenza
- Klebsiella pneumonia
- Staphylococcus aureus
The second cause of bacterial pneumonia is Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (HAP). A patient can get HAP within two to three days of exposure to germs in a medical environment like a hospital or doctor’s office. This type of pneumonia is more difficult to treat than CAP because it is resistant to antibiotics. Some bacteria that can cause HAP includes the following:
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Fungal pneumonia is the third type of pneumonia. Fungal infection occurred when a patient inhales spores or conidia, or the reactivation of a latent infection. Patients with a compromised immune system can have a mortality rate as high as 90% even though individuals with a functional immune system respond well to anti-fungal therapy. Some examples of endemic fungal pneumonia include the following:
- Sporothrix schenckii
- Histoplasma capsulatum
- Coccidioides immitis
- Cryptococcus neoformans
- Blastomyces dermatitidi
- Bulpa, P., Dive, A., & Sibille, Y. (2007). Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. European Respiratory Journal, 30(4), 782-800.
- Meersseman, W., Lagrou, K., Maertens, J., & Van Wijngaerden, E. (2007). Invasive aspergillosis in the intensive care unit. Clinical Infectious Diseases,45(2), 205-216.
- Leading Causes of Death. (2016). Retrieved September 11, 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/leading-causes-of-death.htm