What are the other Names for this Test? (Equivalent Terms)
- Antibodies to Saline-Extracted Antigen Levels Blood Test
- SS-A ENA Levels Blood Test
- SS-A Extractable Nuclear Antibodies Levels Blood Test
What is Sjögren’s Syndrome-A Extractable Nuclear Antibodies Test? (Background Information)
- Sjögren’s syndrome is an autoimmune disease in which autoantibodies attack the salivary and tear glands. The antibodies SS-A (or Ro) and SS-B (or La) can be used to identify the disorder
- Antibodies (Abs) are bodily defense proteins that recognize foreign invaders, such as bacteria. They interact with the immune system and initiate an immune response to eliminate the body of the invader
- Autoantibodies are antibodies that mistakenly recognize the body’s own cells as foreign invaders. Extractable nuclear antibodies are present in the nuclei (plural for nucleus) of cells. They can be extracted with saltwater
- Sjögren’s syndrome-A (or SS-A or Ro) and Sjögren’s syndrome-B (or SS-B or La) antibodies are markers that help identify the disorder. Sjögren’s syndrome mainly affects women over the age of 40 years. It may progress from the salivary and tear glands to the nervous system, intestines, joints, skin, kidneys, and lungs
- The Sjögren’s Syndrome-A Extractable Nuclear Antibodies Blood Test detects SS-A in blood. It is used to aid in the diagnosis of Sjögren’s syndrome
What are the Clinical Indications for performing the Sjögren’s Syndrome-A Extractable Nuclear Antibodies Test?
Following are the clinical indications for performing the Sjögren’s Syndrome-A Extractable Nuclear Antibodies Blood Test:
- Swollen salivary glands
- Dry eyes and mouth
- Difficulty swallowing
- Feeling of sand (particles) in eyes
- Decreased sense of taste
How is the Specimen Collected for Sjögren’s Syndrome-A Extractable Nuclear Antibodies Test?
Following is the specimen collection process for Sjögren’s Syndrome-A Extractable Nuclear Antibodies Blood Test:
Sample required: Blood
Process of obtaining blood sample in adults:
- A band is wrapped around the arm, 3-4 inches above the collection site (superficial vein that lies within the elbow pit)
- The site is cleaned with 70% alcohol in an outward spiral, away from the zone of needle insertion
- The needle cap is removed and is held in line with the vein, pulling the skin tight
- With a small and quick thrust, the vein is penetrated using the needle
- The required amount of blood sample is collected by pulling the plunger of the syringe out slowly
- The wrap band is removed, gauze is placed on the collection site, and the needle is removed
- The blood is immediately transferred into the blood container, which has the appropriate preservative/clot activator/anti-coagulant
- The syringe and the needle are disposed into the appropriate “sharp container” for safe and hygienic disposal
Preparation required: No special preparation is needed prior to the test.
What is the Significance of the Sjögren’s Syndrome-A Extractable Nuclear Antibodies Test Result?
The significance of the Sjögren’s Syndrome-A Extractable Nuclear Antibodies Blood Test result is explained:
- A positive test may indicate Sjögren’s syndrome in 70% of the cases
- A negative test does not necessarily rule out Sjögren’s syndrome; it may still be present in 30% of the cases
The laboratory test results are NOT to be interpreted as results of a "stand-alone" test. The test results have to be interpreted after correlating with suitable clinical findings and additional supplemental tests/information. Your healthcare providers will explain the meaning of your tests results, based on the overall clinical scenario.
Additional and Relevant Useful Information:
- Certain factors interfere with the results of the Sjögren’s Syndrome-A Extractable Nuclear Antibodies Blood Test. These include the presence of other autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Certain medications that you may be currently taking may influence the outcome of the test. Hence, it is important to inform your healthcare provider of the complete list of medications (including any herbal supplements) you are currently taking. This will help the healthcare provider interpret your test results more accurately and avoid unnecessary chances of a misdiagnosis.
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