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Molecular Testing for Localized Type Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor

Last updated March 29, 2017

Molecular Testing for Localized Type Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor is a genetic test that is helpful in aiding a diagnosis of localized type tenosynovial giant cell tumor.


What are other Names for this Test? (Equivalent Terms)

  • Gene Mutation Analysis for Localized Type Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor
  • Test for Molecular Diagnosis of Localized Type Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor

What is Molecular Testing for Localized Type Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor? (Background Information)

  • Molecular Testing for Localized Type Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor is a genetic test that is helpful in aiding a diagnosis of localized type tenosynovial giant cell tumor. The lab test results may also be subsequently useful in taking appropriate treatment decisions
  • Localized type tenosynovial giant cell tumor is a benign soft tissue tumor that typically affects the fingers and toes. It is the most common and milder form of giant cell tumor of tendon sheath (GCTTS). The tumor is generally seen in middle-aged adults
  • The localized type tenosynovial giant cell tumor is slow-growing and painless. It is believed to develop due to genetic abnormalities in the presence of certain contributory factors

The cause of localized type tenosynovial giant cell tumor is due to genetic mutations. Currently, studies indicate defects in the following genes:

  • CSF1-COL6A3
  • Overexpression of CSF1 gene
  • Fusion of unidentified gene with CSF1

Additionally, the following chromosomal abnormalities may be noted:

  • Chromosomal translocation t(1;2)(p13.3;q37)
  • 1p13.3 rearrangement
  • X-chromosome inactivation

The above genetic abnormalities can be detected using molecular studies, which may play a significant role in identifying the tumor type, and in some cases, helping the healthcare provider take appropriate treatment decisions.

The molecular testing, in general, can be performed using a variety of methods. Some of these methods include:

  • In situ hybridization technique, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
  • Next-generation sequencing (NGS)
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  • Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)
  • Karyotyping including spectral karyotyping
  • mRNA analysis
  • Tissue microarrays (TMAs)
  • Southern blot test
  • Northern blot test
  • Western blot test
  • Eastern blot test

The methodology used for localized type tenosynovial giant cell tumor may vary from one laboratory to another. 

Note: Molecular testing has limitations due to the molecular method and genetic mutational abnormalities being tested. This can affect the results on a case-by-case basis. Consultation with your healthcare provider will help in determining the right test and right molecular method, based on individual circumstances.

What are the Clinical Indications for performing the Molecular Testing for Localized Type Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor Test?

Molecular Testing for Localized Type Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor is undertaken in the following situations: 

  • To assist (and in some cases, confirm) the initial diagnosis of localized type tenosynovial giant cell tumor
  • To distinguish other tumors/conditions that have similar histological features, when examined by a pathologist under the microscope
  • To help in determining treatment options
  • To confirm recurrence of the tumor: Tumor recurrence can either be at the original tumor site, or at a distant location (away from the initial site)

How is the Specimen Collected for Molecular Testing for Localized Type Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor?

Following is the specimen collection process for Molecular Testing for Localized Type Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor:

The specimen sample requirements may vary from lab to lab. Hence, it is important to contact the testing lab for exact specimen requirements, before initiating the testing process.

  • Sample on which the test is performed may include:
    • Fresh tumor tissue during biopsy
    • Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded solid tumor tissue (FFPE tumor tissue), often referred to as paraffin block of the tumor
    • Unstained tissue slides
  • Process of obtaining the sample: As outlined by the laboratory testing facility
  • Preparation required: As outlined by the laboratory testing facility

Note:

  • In some cases, a different source of specimen (such as peripheral blood, bone marrow biopsy specimen, or other body fluids) may be acceptable to the laboratory performing the test
  • Occasionally, additional samples may be required to either repeat the test or to perform follow-up testing
  • Depending on the location of testing, it may take up to 2 weeks’ turnaround time, to obtain the test results
  • Many hospitals preserve the paraffin blocks for at least 7 years. In general, older paraffin blocks (over 5 years) may affect the detection of specific mutations, due to degradation of the tumor specimen over time

Cost of Molecular Testing for Localized Type Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor:

  • The cost of the test procedure depends on a variety of factors, such as the type of your health insurance, annual deductibles, co-pay requirements, out-of-network and in-network of your healthcare providers and healthcare facilities
  • In many cases, an estimate may be provided before the test is conducted. The final amount may depend upon the findings during the test procedure and post-operative care that is necessary (if any)

What is the Significance of the Molecular Testing for Localized Type Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor Result?

The significance of Molecular Testing for Localized Type Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor is explained:

  • Presence of a positive test result helps aid, and in some cases, confirm the diagnosis of localized type tenosynovial giant cell tumor
  • The result can help exclude other tumors with similar histological features
  • It can help determine the prognosis of the patient
  • In some cases, the test results may help in taking treatment decisions

The laboratory test results are NOT to be interpreted as results of a "stand-alone" test. The test results have to be interpreted after correlating with suitable clinical findings and additional supplemental tests/information. Your healthcare providers will explain the meaning of your tests results, based on the overall clinical scenario.

Additional and Relevant Useful Information:

  • Many laboratories may not have the capability to perform this test. Only highly-specialized labs with advanced facilities and testing procedures may perform this test
  • Additional mutations are still being discovered in many of these tumors. This may further contribute towards tumor diagnosis and treatment. Please consult with your healthcare provider for any information updates

Certain medications that you may be currently taking may influence the outcome of the test. Hence, it is important to inform your healthcare provider of the complete list of medications (including any herbal supplements) you are currently taking. This will help the healthcare provider interpret your test results more accurately and avoid unnecessary chances of a misdiagnosis.

What are some Useful Resources for Additional Information?

Please visit our Laboratory Procedures Center for more physician-approved health information:

http://www.dovemed.com/common-procedures/procedures-laboratory/

References and Information Sources used for the Article:

https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/testing/genetictesting (accessed on 03/17/2017)

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5806a1.htm (accessed on 03/17/2017)

http://www.nature.com/gim/journal/v10/n5/full/gim200852a.html (accessed on 03/17/2017)

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/106/6/1494 (accessed on 03/17/2017)

http://surgpathcriteria.stanford.edu/softmisc/tenosynloc/printable.html (accessed on 03/15/2017)

http://www.archivesofpathology.org/doi/pdf/10.5858/arpa.2012-0165-CR?code=coap-site (accessed on 03/15/2017)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22849738 (accessed on 03/15/2017)

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Druker, B. J. Perspectives on the development of a molecularly targeted agent. Cancer Cell 1, 31–36 (2002)

Parra, I., & Windle, B. High resolution visual mapping of stretched DNA by fluorescent hybridization. Nature Genetics 5, 17–21 (1993) doi:10.1038/ng0993-17

Pinkel, D., et al. High resolution analysis of DNA copy number variation using comparative genomic hybridization to microarrays. Nature Genetics 20, 207–211 (1998) doi:10.1038/2524

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Fernandez-Flores, A. (2012). Cannibalism in a benign soft tissue tumor (giant-cell tumor of the tendon sheath, localized type): a study of 66 cases. Rom J Morphol Embryol, 53(1), 15-22.

Bridge, J. A., & Cushman-Vokoun, A. M. (2011). Molecular diagnostics of soft tissue tumors. Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine, 135(5), 588-601.

Van der Heijden, L., Gibbons, C. L. M. H., Dijkstra, P. D. S., Kroep, J. R., van Rijswijk, C. S. P., Nout, R. A., ... & van de Sande, M. A. J. (2012). The management of diffuse-type giant cell tumour (pigmented villonodular synovitis) and giant cell tumour of tendon sheath (nodular tenosynovitis). J Bone Joint Surg Br, 94(7), 882-888.

Kim, H. S., Kwon, J. W., Ahn, J. H., Chang, M. J., & Cho, E. Y. (2010). Localized tenosynovial giant cell tumor in both knee joints. Skeletal radiology, 39(9), 923-926.

Cheng, H., Clarkson, P. W., Gao, D., Pacheco, M., Wang, Y., & Nielsen, T. O. (2010). Therapeutic antibodies targeting CSF1 impede macrophage recruitment in a xenograft model of tenosynovial giant cell tumor. Sarcoma, 2010.

Reviewed and Approved by a member of the DoveMed Editorial Board
First uploaded: March 29, 2017
Last updated: March 29, 2017