IMPORTANT INFORMATION: Read This First
All Snake Bites should be evaluated by a trained medical professional, as early as possible. Failure to obtain prompt evaluation and appropriate treatment may result in severe complications and/or death.
DO NOT WAIT!
Call 911 (within the US) or your local emergency number immediately, if you experienced a Snake Bite.
What is Eastern Brown Snake Bite?
- The eastern brown snake is a highly venomous and dangerous snake that is found in most of eastern Australia. It is reportedly the second most venomous snake in the world
- The snake may average around 5-6 feet in length with a medium-sized sturdy body, which is generally dull to dark brown or olive in color
- Typically, the snake bites only when provoked or threatened, although it can strike if it is startled too. However, before doing so, it may provide warning signs, such as presenting a raised hood, to any approaching intruders
Eastern Brown Snake Bites usually take place unintentionally or inadvertently, when individuals come in contact with the very venomous eastern brown snake.
What are the Causes of Eastern Brown Snake Bite?
The cause of Eastern Brown Snake Bite may include:
- Residing in areas endemic to the snake
- People working on agricultural lands and cultivations
- The snake is known to enter easily accessible households in search of prey (such as mice and rats) and inadvertently strike humans
- Walking unprotected through forests, bushes, and grasslands; venturing outdoors during the night
- Amateur study groups and scientific explorers who come into contact with the snakes
- Keeping them as pets
- Picking up or handling these snakes
- There is a high risk for alcoholics and drug addicts who come into contact with the snakes
What are the Signs and Symptoms of Eastern Brown Snake Bite?
The signs and symptoms of an Eastern Brown Snake Bite may depend on the quantity of venom injected (and the number of bites). It can vary from one individual to another, but is mostly severe.
These include an initial set of symptoms such as:
- Minimal pain and swelling at the bite site
- Bite or fang marks on the affected limb that may be hardly visible (initially)
- Discoloration of skin and blistering
- Bleeding from the bite site
- Double vision
- Fatigue and weak muscles
- Body aches and muscle aches; joint pain
- Twitching of eye and mouth
- Tingling sensation and numbness
- Chills and sweating
- Enlarged lymph nodes
- Anxiety and drowsiness
- Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
- Abdominal pain
The following signs and symptoms may be observed after several hours:
- Blurred vision
- Poor reflexes
- Droopy eyelids and eye muscle paralysis
- Breathing difficulties
- Dark-colored urine
- Bleeding from the gums, nose, etc.
With severe venom injection, a host of systemic symptoms and complications such as cardiovascular instability (early cardiac arrest), neurological symptoms (including rarely flaccid paralysis) and kidney failure may be noted.
How is First Aid administered for Eastern Brown Snake Bite?
If a snake bite is suspected, it is always important to call your local emergency helpline number (or dial 911 in the US) without any delay, and provide as much information as possible, even if the individual does not have any symptoms. Also, call your local poison control center (US Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222) for further instructions.
Until medical help arrives:
- Remove the individual from the incident spot; move away from the snake immediately
- Also, move the individual to a shaded area, if he/she is lying exposed to the sun
- Expose the bite site by removing or cutting the dress material, if necessary. DO NOT move or shake the bitten hand/leg beyond the minimum requirement
- Use a damp cloth to wipe the wound once, but DO NOT wash the wound with water (this is to facilitate easier identification of suitable of antivenom, for snake bites in Australia)
- Remove constrictive clothing and any jewelry, such as bangles, bracelets, wrist watches, and rings, from the limb that is involved, especially before wrapping/bandaging the affected limb (pressure immobilization)
- A sterile dry bandage may be used to cover the wound. If the body or trunk is bitten, then apply firm pressure to the wound; however, this should not interfere with chest (breathing) movement
- Use broad cloth strips/bandages to wrap the affected limb including fingers/toes, above and below the wound completely and firmly (but, NOT to tight to restrict blood circulation in any manner). The pressure immobilization technique should be attempted by trained personnel only
- A sling may be used to immobilize the affected hand, or a splint for the affected leg. Avoid any unnecessary movement including running or walking. A splint (or stick) should be used to prevent the limb joints from bending
- Try to keep the victim as comfortable and warm as possible; stay with the victim until help arrives to provide reassurance
- Make a note of the exact time of the incident and notify the emergency medical personnel accordingly
- Try to identify or locate the reptile (only if safely possible) and keep the medical personnel informed; if possible, try to take a picture of the snake using one’s mobile phone
- If the snake is dead, then try to carefully take the snake in a safe container to the healthcare center for identification
- Confirm that the airways are protected; also, ensure breathing and the presence of pulse
- If the victim is not breathing or there is no movement, immediately begin CPR (cardio-pulmonary resuscitation), if you are trained to do so
- DO NOT give anything orally to the individual
- Unless directed by the physician, DO NOT give any medication
- If the individual is vomiting, DO NOT turn their head alone, instead, move their head, neck, and entire body, to one side
- Safely and immediately transport the affected individual to the nearest and appropriate healthcare facility (having expertise in snakebite treatment, if available)
- Administer antivenom if available, and ONLY if a qualified healthcare provider is present
The following methods to help the victim SHOULD NOT be allowed or considered:
- Rubbing or massaging the wound
- Shaking the affected arm or leg of the bitten individual
- Forcing the individual to walk long distances (the victim should be carried, as far as possible)
- Washing the bite mark with soap and water (this applies ONLY for Australian snakes)
- Tying constricting bandages above the fang mark
- Applying ice or pouring other liquids (alcohol) on the bite site
- Applying heat packs or trying to burn the bite site (applying hot embers)
- Immersion in hot water or oils
- Cutting the wound in an attempt to wash away the venom
- Sucking the bite wound, in an attempt to suck and spit out the venom; or, using any mechanical device to apply suction to the wound
- Applying topical creams/ointments or any chemicals such as potassium permanganate
- Giving tea, coffee, or any alcoholic beverages to the victim (water may be given to keep the individual hydrated, if required)
- Administering ANY form of traditional treatments, use of herbal/native medicines, or other unapproved treatment measures
It is important to note that pressure immobilization bandaging is not the same as providing a tourniquet, which is essentially a constriction of the body part to control blood flow for a certain period of time.
Information on administering antivenom:
- Administration of antivenom serum (AVS) should be allowed only when there are identifiable signs and symptoms of local and systemic envenomation along with supporting laboratory test evidence
- At many health centers, the antidote to snake bite envenomation is scarcely available and usually very expensive; thus, it is important to not waste such a life-saving resource
- Also, in many individuals, there is a high risk for severe allergic reaction, such as anaphylaxis, to the antivenom that may even be fatal
- Consultation with a medical toxicologist is recommended for all cases requiring anti-snake venom administration
Any indiscriminate use of antivenom serum either due to improper training and knowledge or under compulsion from the victim’s family or friends is therefore highly discouraged. Nevertheless, a qualified healthcare provider is best-placed to determine whether the administration of AVS is necessary or not in each and every specific case.
Who should administer First Aid for Eastern Brown Snake Bite?
- The individual himself/herself or someone nearby may begin administering basic First Aid
- Call your local emergency helpline number or 911 (within the US) immediately
For all cases involving actual or suspected snake bites, it is very important to immediately seek the advice, evaluation, and treatment of a qualified healthcare provider.
What is the Prognosis of Eastern Brown Snake Bite?
The prognosis of Eastern Brown Snake Bite is usually dependent on the following set of factors:
- Site of bite and the amount of toxin injected (including the number of bites)
- Age and overall health status of the individual
- Timely manner in which antivenom is administered
- Severity of allergic reactions, if any develop
- Effectiveness of the treatment following admission
In many cases, with urgent first aid, prompt treatment and hospitalization of the victim, the prognosis is typically good. Without treatment or access to proper healthcare, deaths from severe systemic symptoms and complications from Eastern Brown Snake Bites are a high possibility. The fatality rate is very high for untreated bites from the eastern brown snake.
How can Eastern Brown Snake Bite be Prevented?
A few helpful tips to prevent snake bites include:
- Avoid unnecessary contact with any snake; if you spot a snake, try to keep a safe distance between yourself and the snake
- Completely refrain from touching, provoking, or picking up any snake (even if it is dead)
- Educate the local community about venomous snakes in the region
- Be on the lookout for snakes while trekking, hiking, camping, or while traveling through snake-infested areas (forests, grasslands, thick bushes, even dry woodlands)
- While walking through such areas, always stay on clear pathways and roads
- Wear protective clothing such as boots, full length pants, and full-sleeved shirts, while exploring the woods and forestlands
- Avoiding being outdoors at night in forested areas
- Do not ignore the warnings on signboards or of forest/wildlife officials
- Do not probe into dark recesses and crevices with your bare hands; check out for snakes concealed on tree branches or bushes before moving or holding them
- Near coastal areas, always check before sitting on dead tree logs, stumps, or a pile of rocks
- Wildlife researchers and amateur explorers are requested to carry suitable first aid kits
- Be particularly vigilant during peak agricultural activities, harvest times, and after rainy periods/flooding
- Keep homes and surrounding areas clean and clear of rubbish or leafy piles, termite mounds, and even building materials
- Cut tall and unkempt grass or low-lying shrubs and bushes around dwelling areas that provides hiding places for snakes and other rodents
- Teach and educate children about the dangers and importance of snakes
What are certain Crucial Steps to be followed?
All snake bites should be considered as medical emergencies and accorded prompt attention with evaluation by trained medical professionals, as soon as possible, particularly in the first 4-8 hours.
- Remove the victim immediately from the spot (prevent further bites)
- Call your local emergency helpline number (or 911) for help
- Immobilize the affected site (arm or leg)
- Transport the victim without delay to an appropriate health center of care
- Do not hesitate to call your emergency help services
- Do not waste precious time attempting to catch or kill the snake for identification purposes
- Do not medicate the individual, unless advised by a healthcare professional
- Do not move the affected region of the body too much
- Do not run or exercise which might increase the circulation of toxin in the body
- Do not elevate the affected area above the heart level, since this can also increase circulation of the toxin