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VLDL Cholesterol Blood Test

Last updated Sept. 10, 2018

Approved by: Krish Tangella MD, MBA, FCAP

High VLDL cholesterol levels may indicate coronary artery disease (CAD)

What are the other Names for this Test? (Equivalent Terms)

  • Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Blood Test
  • VLDL Blood Test
  • VLDL-C Blood Test

What is VLDL Cholesterol Blood Test? (Background Information)

  • Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is one of the several protein transporters of cholesterol through blood. It is necessary for the regulation of fat metabolism
  • Lipoproteins are carriers of cholesterol and fats. They are necessary because cholesterol and fats are not soluble in blood. Were it not for lipoprotein carriers, cholesterol and fats would coagulate and clog blood vessels
  • Lipoproteins contain apolipoproteins (“apo-“ means detached) as part of their structure. Apolipoproteins are required for transport and migration outside the blood vessel
  • The type of apolipoprotein contained by a lipoprotein determines where the lipoprotein will go. This is because cells at the destination recognize lipoproteins by the apolipoproteins they contain
  • There are different kinds of lipoproteins, depending on the ratio of protein to fat:
    • Very-low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and chylomicrons contain high amounts of fat per protein
    • High-density lipoproteins (HDL) contain less fat per protein. They transport fat and cholesterol from the body back to the liver for metabolism. Thus, they are called “good”
    • Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) transport fat and cholesterol from the liver to the rest of the body. Thus, they are called “bad”
  • The VLDL Cholesterol Blood Test is used to assess the levels of VLDL in circulation. It is used to estimate the risk for cardiovascular disease and also helps provide a measure of one’s cardiovascular health

What are the Clinical Indications for performing the VLDL Cholesterol Blood Test?

Following are the clinical indications for performing the VLDL Cholesterol Blood Test:

  • Evaluating the risk for cardiovascular disease that is marked by:
    • Chest pain or discomfort
    • Shortness of breath
    • Fatigue
    • Jaw pain
    • Family history of cardiovascular disease             
  • Monitoring therapy for cardiovascular disease or high cholesterol levels

How is the Specimen Collected for VLDL Cholesterol Blood Test?

Following is the specimen collection process for VLDL Cholesterol Blood Test:

Sample required: Blood

Process of obtaining blood sample in adults:

  • A band is wrapped around the arm, 3-4 inches above the collection site (superficial vein that lies within the elbow pit)
  • The site is cleaned with 70% alcohol in an outward spiral, away from the zone of needle insertion
  • The needle cap is removed and is held in line with the vein, pulling the skin tight
  • With a small and quick thrust, the vein is penetrated using the needle
  • The required amount of blood sample is collected by pulling the plunger of the syringe out slowly
  • The wrap band is removed, gauze is placed on the collection site, and the needle is removed
  • The blood is immediately transferred into the blood container, which has the appropriate preservative/clot activator/anti-coagulant
  • The syringe and the needle are disposed into the appropriate “sharp container” for safe and hygienic disposal

Preparation required: No special preparation is needed prior to the test.

What is the Significance of the VLDL Cholesterol Blood Test Result?

High VLDL cholesterol levels may indicate:

  • Coronary artery disease (CAD)
  • Liver disorder
  • Diabetes
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Consumption of diets high in cholesterol and saturated fat

The laboratory test results are NOT to be interpreted as results of a "stand-alone" test. The test results have to be interpreted after correlating with suitable clinical findings and additional supplemental tests/information. Your healthcare providers will explain the meaning of your tests results, based on the overall clinical scenario.

Additional and Relevant Useful Information:

  • This test measures VLDL levels directly. However, VLDL levels can also be calculated indirectly through the use of a formula, which is: VLDL = (Total Cholesterol) – (HDL) – (LDL)
  • VLDL can also be estimated quickly by dividing the total triglycerides level by 2.18 in Standard International (SI) units. In other words, VLDLestimated = (Total Triglycerides)/5. This approximation only works for triglyceride levels less than 400 mg/dL

Certain factors may interfere with the results of VLDL Cholesterol Blood Test. These include:

  • Stress
  • Pregnancy
  • Individual genetic predispositions to certain enzyme deficiencies

Certain medications that you may be currently taking may influence the outcome of the test. Hence, it is important to inform your healthcare provider of the complete list of medications (including any herbal supplements) you are currently taking. This will help the healthcare provider interpret your test results more accurately and avoid unnecessary chances of a misdiagnosis.

What are some Useful Resources for Additional Information?

References and Information Sources used for the Article:

Reviewed and Approved by a member of the DoveMed Editorial Board
First uploaded: June 2, 2015
Last updated: Sept. 10, 2018