×

Please Remove Adblock
Adverts are the main source of Revenue for DoveMed. Please remove adblock to help us create the best medical content found on the Internet.

Molecular Testing for Simple Bone Cyst

Last updated March 24, 2017

Molecular Testing for Simple Bone Cyst

Molecular Testing for Simple Bone Cyst is a genetic test that is helpful in aiding a diagnosis of simple bone cyst. The lab test results may also be subsequently useful in taking appropriate treatment decisions.


What are other Names for this Test? (Equivalent Terms)

  • Gene Mutation Analysis for Simple Bone Cyst
  • Test for Molecular Diagnosis of Simple Bone Cyst

What is Molecular Testing for Simple Bone Cyst? (Background Information)

  • Molecular Testing for Simple Bone Cyst is a genetic test that is helpful in aiding a diagnosis of simple bone cyst. The lab test results may also be subsequently useful in taking appropriate treatment decisions
  • Simple bone cysts are common benign tumors that form fluid-filled cysts on bones. these tumors are also known as unicameral bone cysts, and are typically observed in children and teenagers
  • Normally, only a single bone tumor is observed that may be located near the growth plate. Simple bone cysts may cause mild pain in the affected bone. Tumors that are large may cause the bones to weaken, making it vulnerable for easy fractures
  • Complications may include deformation of the affected limb, if the tumor affects the epiphyseal plate (bone growth area), and recurrence of tumor following treatment

The cause of simple bone cyst may be due to genetic mutations. Currently, studies indicate the following defects:

  • Abnormalities in chromosomes 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, and 21 have been detected
  • An isolated case involving chromosomal translocation t(16;20)(p11.2;q13) has been reported
  • Also, one case of recurrent tumor exhibited mutation in the TP53 gene

The above genetic abnormalities can be detected using molecular studies, which may play a significant role in identifying the tumor type, and in some cases, helping the healthcare provider take appropriate treatment decisions.

The molecular testing, in general, can be performed using a variety of methods. Some of these methods include:

  • In situ hybridization technique, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
  • Next-generation sequencing (NGS)
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  • Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)
  • Karyotyping including spectral karyotyping
  • mRNA analysis
  • Tissue microarrays (TMAs)
  • Southern blot test
  • Northern blot test
  • Western blot test
  • Eastern blot test

The methodology used for simple bone cyst may vary from one laboratory to another. 

Note: Molecular testing has limitations due to the molecular method and genetic mutational abnormalities being tested. This can affect the results on a case-by-case basis. Consultation with your healthcare provider will help in determining the right test and right molecular method, based on individual circumstances.

What are the Clinical Indications for performing the Molecular Testing for Simple Bone Cyst Test?

Molecular Testing for Simple Bone Cyst is undertaken in the following situations:

  • To assist (and in some cases, confirm) the initial diagnosis of simple bone cyst
  • To distinguish other tumors/conditions that have similar histological features, when examined by a pathologist under the microscope
  • To help in determining treatment options
  • To confirm recurrence of the tumor: Tumor recurrence can either be at the original tumor site, or at a distant location (away from the initial site)

How is the Specimen Collected for Molecular Testing for Simple Bone Cyst?

Following is the specimen collection process for Molecular Testing for Simple Bone Cyst:

The specimen sample requirements may vary from lab to lab. Hence, it is important to contact the testing lab for exact specimen requirements, before initiating the testing process.

  • Sample on which the test is performed may include:
    • Fresh tumor tissue during biopsy
    • Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded solid tumor tissue (FFPE tumor tissue), often referred to as paraffin block of the tumor
    • Unstained tissue slides
  • Process of obtaining the sample: As outlined by the laboratory testing facility
  • Preparation required: As outlined by the laboratory testing facility

Note:

  • In some cases, a different source of specimen (such as peripheral blood, bone marrow biopsy specimen, or other body fluids) may be acceptable to the laboratory performing the test
  • Occasionally, additional samples may be required to either repeat the test or to perform follow-up testing
  • Depending on the location of testing, it may take up to 2 weeks’ turnaround time, to obtain the test results
  • Many hospitals preserve the paraffin blocks for at least 7 years. In general, older paraffin blocks (over 5 years) may affect the detection of specific mutations, due to degradation of the tumor specimen over time

Cost of Molecular Testing for Simple Bone Cyst:

  • The cost of the test procedure depends on a variety of factors, such as the type of your health insurance, annual deductibles, co-pay requirements, out-of-network and in-network of your healthcare providers and healthcare facilities
  • In many cases, an estimate may be provided before the test is conducted. The final amount may depend upon the findings during the test procedure and post-operative care that is necessary (if any)

What is the Significance of the Molecular Testing for Simple Bone Cyst Result?

The significance of Molecular Testing for Simple Bone Cyst is explained:

  • Presence of a positive test result helps aid, and in some cases, confirm the diagnosis of simple bone cyst
  • The result can help exclude other tumors with similar histological features
  • It can help determine the prognosis of the patient
  • In some cases, the test results may help in taking treatment decisions

The laboratory test results are NOT to be interpreted as results of a "stand-alone" test. The test results have to be interpreted after correlating with suitable clinical findings and additional supplemental tests/information. Your healthcare providers will explain the meaning of your tests results, based on the overall clinical scenario.

Additional and Relevant Useful Information:

  • Many laboratories may not have the capability to perform this test. Only highly-specialized labs with advanced facilities and testing procedures may perform this test
  • Additional mutations are still being discovered in many of these tumors. This may further contribute towards tumor diagnosis and treatment. Please consult with your healthcare provider for any information updates

Certain medications that you may be currently taking may influence the outcome of the test. Hence, it is important to inform your healthcare provider of the complete list of medications (including any herbal supplements) you are currently taking. This will help the healthcare provider interpret your test results more accurately and avoid unnecessary chances of a misdiagnosis.

What are some Useful Resources for Additional Information?

Please visit our Laboratory Procedures Center for more physician-approved health information:

http://www.dovemed.com/common-procedures/procedures-laboratory/

References and Information Sources used for the Article:

https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/testing/genetictesting (accessed on 03/05/2017)

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5806a1.htm (accessed on 03/05/2017)

http://www.nature.com/gim/journal/v10/n5/full/gim200852a.html (accessed on 03/05/2017)

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/106/6/1494 (accessed on 03/05/2017)

http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00081 (accessed on 03/20/2017)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3539840/ (accessed on 03/20/2017)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10993540 (accessed on 03/20/2017)

Helpful Peer-Reviewed Medical Articles:

Carrano, A. V., et al. Measurement and purification of human chromosomes by flow cytometry and sorting. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 76, 1382–1384 (1979)

Drets, M. E., & Shaw, M. W. Specific banding patterns of human chromosomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 68, 2073–2077 (1971)

Druker, B. J. Perspectives on the development of a molecularly targeted agent. Cancer Cell 1, 31–36 (2002)

Parra, I., & Windle, B. High resolution visual mapping of stretched DNA by fluorescent hybridization. Nature Genetics 5, 17–21 (1993) doi:10.1038/ng0993-17

Pinkel, D., et al. High resolution analysis of DNA copy number variation using comparative genomic hybridization to microarrays. Nature Genetics 20, 207–211 (1998) doi:10.1038/2524

Speicher, M. R., et al. Karyotyping human chromosomes by combinatorial multi-fluor FISH. Nature Genetics 12, 368–375 (1996) doi:10.1038/ng0496-368

1824.

Richkind, K. E., Mortimer, E., Mowery-Rushton, P., & Fraire, A. (2002). Translocation (16; 20)(p11. 2; q13): sole cytogenetic abnormality in a unicameral bone cyst. Cancer genetics and cytogenetics, 137(2), 153-155.

Szuhai, K., Cleton-Jansen, A. M., Hogendoorn, P. C., & Bovée, J. V. (2012). Molecular pathology and its diagnostic use in bone tumors. Cancer genetics, 205(5), 193-204.

Yu, J., Chang, S. S., Suratwala, S., Chung, W. S., Abdelmessieh, P., Lee, H. J., ... & Lee, F. Y. I. (2005). Zoledronate induces apoptosis in cells from fibro‐cellular membrane of unicameral bone cyst (UBC). Journal of orthopaedic research, 23(5), 1004-1012.

Yu, J., Chang, S. S., Suratwala, S., Chung, W. S., Abdelmessieh, P., Lee, H. J., ... & Lee, F. Y. I. (2005). Zoledronate induces apoptosis in cells from fibro‐cellular membrane of unicameral bone cyst (UBC). Journal of orthopaedic research, 23(5), 1004-1012.

Komiya, S., Minamitani, K., Sasaguri, Y., Hashimoto, S., Morimatsu, M., & Inoue, A. (1993). Simple Bone Cyst: Treatment by Trepanation and Studies on Bone Resorptive Factors in Cyst Fluid With a Theory of Its Pathogenesis. Clinical orthopaedics and related research, 287, 204-211.

Júnior, O. F., Damante, J. H., & Lauris, J. R. P. (2014). Simple bone cyst versus odontogenic keratocyst: differential diagnosis by digitized panoramic radiography. Dentomaxillofacial Radiology.

Reviewed and Approved by a member of the DoveMed Editorial Board
First uploaded: March 24, 2017
Last updated: March 24, 2017

Was this article helpful?

Top Physicians in your area

Top Hospitals in your area

Comments